Born in Birmingham in 1890 Bomberg grew up in Whitechapel, London. He studied at Slade Schoo of Art (1911-1913) under Henry Tonks, alongside Mark Gertler, Stanley Spencer, C.R.W.Nevinson and Dora Carrington.
Early in his career Bomberg painted large, near-abstract paintings, combining the influences of cubism and futurism, typically using a limited number of striking colours, turning humans into simple, angular shapes, and sometimes overlaying the whole painting with a cubist grid pattern. He associated with Wyndam Lewis's Vorticist group, though he was not an official member.
In 1920's Bomberg moved to a more figurative style and his work became increasingly dominated by portraits and landscapes drawn from nature. Gradually developing a more expressionist technique he travelled widely through the Middle East and Europe.
From 1945 to 1953 Bomberg taught at Borough Polytechnic (now London South Bank University) in London, where his pupils included, amongst others, Frank Auerbach and Leon Kossoff.